Cultivation of ampelous tomatoes produced in pendant tanks. For planting choose special varieties that branch well and give a rich harvest. To grow ampelous tomatoes at home, you need to provide them with the necessary microclimate, install lighting, and prepare the soil for the plants.
For cultivation in the home are used the following ampelnye varieties:
- Talisman is one of the most sought-after representatives of ampelous tomatoes. This is an early maturing variety with a long fruiting period. The weight of the fruit is up to 20 g. Talisman is valued for the taste of the fruit and is a good decoration for windows.
- F1 city dweller is a cultivar that produces large tomatoes of raspberry shade. For planting capacity is selected capacity of more than 4 liters. The length of the main shoot reaches 0.8 m. Pasyping bushes is necessarily carried out. Ripening tomatoes takes up to 100 days.
- Cascade Red F1 - compact bushes, which form a set of shoots up to 0.5 m in length. The hybrid is distinguished by simple care and does not require staking. It is enough to remove the dry and yellowed leaves of plants. For planting required capacity of 5 liters.
- Red abundance - tomatoes, able to give a good harvest with proper care. Fruits resemble cherry in taste and appearance. The bush quickly grows and gives shoots up to 0.6 m long without peacock.
- A garden pearl is a short growing plant, which is distinguished by numerous shoots and small fruits. The weight of tomatoes does not exceed 20 g. The shrub is suitable for growing on a window, since it has a height of up to 40 cm. The variety is distinguished by unpretentiousness and abundant fruiting.
Creation of conditions
Tomatoes require special conditions that contribute to their development and fruiting. At home, you need to monitor indicators such as temperature, humidity, light level.
Temperature and humidity
Growing an ampel tomato requires compliance with a certain temperature. In the summer, you need to maintain the temperature at 21-26 ° C. In cloudy weather, it can be reduced to 20 ° C.
At night, the temperature for plants is maintained at 16-18 ° C. If necessary, additional heating is installed in the room where tomatoes are grown.
A short-term cooling at 10 ° C will not have a negative impact on planting. If the temperature drop outside lasts for several days, the plants develop more slowly, flowering and pollination cease.Important! In the heat, tomato photosynthesis slows down, pollen is peeling off.
To reduce the temperature will help ventilation and installation of fans for plants. Tomatoes are insensitive to drafts.
Attention is also paid to the temperature of the soil. Its value should be from 20 to 25 ° C. With an increase in this indicator, an earlier harvest is obtained, however, the fruits grow small in size. At lower rates, tomatoes will ripen later, but their number will be more significant.
Tomatoes do not tolerate high humidity. Her performance when growing these plants should remain at the level of 60-70%. It is possible to lower indicators due to airing. To increase the humidity of the house installed containers with water.
Increased humidity provokes the development of diseases, adversely affects the process of pollination.
Tomato is a culture that is demanding on light. With a lack of light, the plants are drawn out, forming a thin stem and shoots. Intensive lighting can accelerate the ripening of tomatoes for 2 weeks.Important! The length of daylight hours for tomatoes is 14-16 hours.
Plants prefer direct light, so in cloudy weather or winter, fruit quality may deteriorate. Ampelnye varieties better cope with the lack of light.
The minimum illumination for tomatoes on the window is 2,000 lux. For the formation of the ovary, this figure should be at least 4,000 - 6,000 lux. Optimum illumination for plants - 20 000 lx.
If there is not enough sunlight on the balcony or window, then you need to arrange additional lighting. For cultivation of tomatoes, you can use the following types of devices:
- Sodium lamps - emit red and orange light, which has a positive effect on plants during flowering and fruit formation. Such lamps do not irritate a person’s sight and can be used at home. The disadvantage of sodium lamps is complicated connection and large size.
- LED lamps - the most common option for organizing the illumination of tomatoes. Their increased cost is offset by efficiency, durability, simple repair, low heat, no flicker.
- Phytolamps - devices designed to organize lighting for plants. The simplest option is a bi-color lamp emitting a red and blue color spectrum. For adult plants or thick plantings used multispectral devices. They are used in cloudy weather to stimulate fruiting.
For planting tomatoes used purchased soil or preparing the necessary soil mixture. Plants prefer loam or sandy soil with good air and moisture permeability.Tip! For the preparation of the soil is taken forest land, peat, humus and sand.
All components are mixed, after which the soil is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This procedure will destroy the harmful bacteria that live in the soil.
To improve the properties of the soil will help to make feeding: 1 tbsp. l ash, 1 tsp. potassium sulfate and superphosphate per 10 kg of soil. Complex fertilizer for plants contains phosphorus, potassium and calcium, which are necessary for the full development of tomatoes.
In the tank for tomatoes, a drainage layer is first made, consisting of expanded clay crumb or coconut substrate. Then the ground is poured and plant seeds are planted.
Planting of ampelous tomatoes at home begins in March. The material is placed at a depth of 3 cm. Before planting, they are soaked for 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate of weak concentration, and then washed with water.
Ampel tomatoes are planted in one of the following ways:
- in a regular pot;
- in hanging tanks;
- "Head down."
For the cultivation of tomato container is selected with a capacity of 4 liters. You can place conventional containers on the windowsill, hang them on the balcony or loggia. Suspended structures take up less space.
You can pre-plant in small containers. When the seedlings rise and get stronger, it is transferred to a permanent place. The procedure is carried out in May. Tomatoes are transplanted together with a lump of earth in order not to damage the root system.
The original way of growing tomatoes in pots is to plant them upside down. To do this, holes are made in the container with a diameter of up to 10 cm, through which the stem of the plant passes. The tomato root system remains in the container.
This technology increases the yield of tomatoes, because the shoots are less stressed and better ventilated. The free upper part of the pots can be used to grow herbs at home, lettuce or other plants.
Care for ampelous tomatoes includes regular watering, soil loosening and fertilization. Organic and mineral components are used for feeding. Fertilizers are used by watering the planting or spraying on the sheet. Depending on the variety, the stepsoning of the plants and the removal of excess shoots are made.
Watering and loosening
Tomatoes require constant intake of moisture. For irrigation, warm water is used, which should come under the plant root. The procedure is carried out in the morning or evening hours.
Tomatoes tolerate short drought well. After a long absence of watering, moisture should be introduced gradually in small portions. Otherwise it will cause cracking of the fruit.Important! An excess of moisture will lead to the development of diseases and slow growth of plants.
Watering is done as the soil dries. After planting in the pots, the plants are watered abundantly, after which a 10-day break is taken. In the future, it is enough to water the tomatoes once a week. Moisture must penetrate the entire depth of the tank. During the ripening period, the intensity of watering can be increased to speed up this process.
Additionally, the soil is loosened. The procedure improves the penetration of moisture and nutrients into the soil. The depth of loosening should not exceed 3 cm, so as not to damage the root system of plants.
Fertilizer application is a mandatory step in the care of an ampel tomato at home. The first feeding is done after the appearance of the second leaf in plants. To strengthen the immunity of plants and increase resistance to diseases, treatment with the drug "Fitosporin" is performed.
For feeding seedlings preparing a solution based on mullein (at a concentration of 1 l of fertilizer per 10 l of water). Mineral supplements are no less useful for tomatoes.
They are prepared by mixing the following components:
- ash - 50 g;
- superphosphate - 30 g;
- manganese sulphate - 0.3 g;
- boric acid - 0.3 g;
- water - 10 l.
Each bush needs up to 0.5 liters of solution. The following treatment is carried out in 10 days. Before the appearance of the ovaries, it is better to abandon nitrogen fertilizers, which lead to the active growth of shoots.
During the flowering period, ampelous tomatoes can be fed with boric acid. The concentration of the substance is 2 g per bucket of water. Boric acid prevents leaf curling, contributes to the formation of new inflorescences in plants.
A foliar treatment helps ensure a quick supply of nutrients to plants. It is carried out by spraying the leaves of tomatoes. The solution is prepared from mineral or organic components.Tip! For spraying tomatoes in pots, choose the morning or evening period to avoid leaf burn.
For foliar application, a double superphosphate (5 g) is diluted in a bucket of water. The tool is especially effective during fruiting.
At home, adult tomatoes can be sprayed with non-fat milk in the amount of 1 liter, which is pre-diluted in 5 liters of water. If you add to the solution 15 drops of iodine, then it can be used for the prevention of plant diseases. Processing is carried out every two weeks.
The method of growing ampelous tomatoes is selected on the basis of free space, which is reserved for planting. Planting care includes the arrangement of the lighting system, the regulation of humidity and temperature conditions. Be sure to make fertilizers to help plants form the ovary.