Peppers, like other horticultural crops, require nutrients to maintain their development. The need of plants for nitrogen, which contributes to the formation of green mass of plants, is extremely important. Supplementing the pepper with urea helps to fill the deficiency of this element. Processing is carried out at each stage of pepper development and is complemented by other types of dressings.
Signs of nitrogen deficiency
For the full functioning of the peppers need to ensure the flow of nitrogen. This component is contained in the soil, however, its quantity is not always enough for the development of plants.
Nitrogen deficiency may be present on any type of soil. Its disadvantage is noticeable in spring, when at low temperatures the formation of nitrates is still slowed down.Important! Fertilizing with nitrogen is important for sandy and loamy soil.
A lack of nitrogen in peppers is detected on certain grounds:
- slow growth;
- small leaves with a pale color;
- thin stems;
- yellowing of the leaves at the veins;
- small fruits;
- premature leaf fall;
- curved shape of the fruit.
When these symptoms appear, the peppers are treated with substances containing nitrogen. At the same time it is necessary to observe the established proportions in order to avoid glut.
To determine the excess nitrogen can be a number of manifestations:
- slow growth of peppers;
- dark green color of leaves;
- thick stems;
- small number of ovaries and fruits;
- susceptibility of plants to diseases;
- long fruit ripening.
With an excess supply of nitrogen, all the forces of the peppers are spent on the formation of stems and foliage. The appearance of ovaries and fruiting suffers from this.
The main source of nitrogen for peppers is urea. Its composition includes up to 46% of this element. Urea is available in the form of white granules, soluble in water.
When urea is used, soil is oxidized. However, this process is not as pronounced as when using ammonium nitrate and other substances. Therefore, urea is more preferable in the care of peppers. This applies to both watering the soil and spraying plants.Tip! Urea works best on moist soil.
Substance does not lose the properties on any kinds of soil. After entering the wetted soil, the compound hardens and becomes less susceptible to leaching. Fertilizer is sprinkled with earth to avoid nitrogen loss.
Under the influence of bacteria present in the soil, urea in a few days is converted to ammonium carbonate. This substance decomposes rapidly in air. The transition process is quite slow, so the peppers have enough time to saturate with nitrogen.Important! Urea is stored in a dry place, where moisture is excluded.
How to use urea
Urea is used as the main type of fertilizer for peppers, and as a top dressing. Watering is done in small doses. When mixing the solution, it is important to observe the proportions of the ingredients in order to avoid oversaturation of the soil with nitrogen.
Excess urea in close proximity to the planted seeds adversely affects their germination. To neutralize this effect is possible by creating a layer of soil or the use of fertilizers and potassium.
Tip! The solution is used in the evening, so that in the morning its components are absorbed with dew.
Cloudy weather is best for processing. This is especially true sprinkling peppers. Otherwise, in the sun the plants will get a serious burn.
The substance is mixed with other minerals, if you want to get fertilizer for the soil. Adding components is possible only in dry form. If superphosphate is added to urea, then its acidity should be neutralized. This task will handle chalk or dolomite.
After watering, you need to analyze the state of the peppers. With this in mind, the proportions of the components are adjusted.
When working with urea and other mineral fertilizers, it is necessary to observe a number of rules:
- To prepare the solution, separate dishes are required, which are not used anywhere else;
- the substance is stored in a vacuum package;
- if the fertilizer has been stored for too long, it is passed through a sieve before processing the peppers;
- substances are placed in the ground in such a way as to avoid contact with the roots and other parts of plants;
- with a lack of nitrogen, fertilizer based on phosphorus and potassium will be ineffective, so all the components are used in the complex;
- if organic fertilizing is additionally used, the content of mineral fertilizers is reduced by one third.
The stages of feeding urea
Urea treatment is performed at all stages of pepper development. Nitrogen saturation is especially important with the growth of seedlings. In the future, its supply is reduced, and other nutrients are added - potassium, phosphorus, calcium.
Peppers prefer a light loose earth that has a porous structure. Soil of this type provides access of moisture and air. For plant development, it is important that the soil contains trace elements (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, iron) and beneficial microflora.
Peppers grow well in neutral soil, because it reduces the likelihood of developing blackleg and other diseases.
For seedlings of pepper is taken the soil, consisting in equal parts of peat, earth, sand, humus. Before planting, you can add a glass of ash to the soil.
To increase the fertility of loamy soil, add sawdust and manure to it. On 1 square. m of soil sufficient one bucket of sawdust and manure. Add one bucket of sand and sawdust to the clay soil. Improving the properties of peat soil helps add humus and turf soil.
Additionally, before planting plants in the ground, you need to add a complex of substances:
- superphosphate - 1 tbsp. l .;
- wood ash - 1 cup;
- potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. l .;
- carbamide - 1 tsp.
Such a complex feed will provide the peppers with the necessary substances. After adding the mixture, the soil is dug up to get the beds up to 30 cm high. After leveling the surface of the beds, they are watered with a solution of mullein (500 ml of fertilizer is diluted in 10 liters of water).Tip! Urea and other components are introduced into the soil 14 days before the peppers are planted.
To preserve nitrogen in the soil, it is buried deeper. Part of the fertilizer can be applied in the autumn, however, urea is added in the spring, closer to the time of planting.
First, peppers are grown in small containers, and then transported seedlings in a greenhouse or in an open space. Seeds need to be planted 90 days before moving plants to a permanent place. This is usually the middle of February - the beginning of March.
To improve the germination of seeds they are wrapped in a damp cloth, and then left to warm for several days.Tip! Pre-soil is treated with copper sulfate, and the seed material is placed for half an hour in an iodine solution.
When the first shoots appear, they are treated with urea. This requires an aqueous solution containing urea and potassium permanganate. Spray spray solution on the leaves.
For processing peppers, thawed or distilled water is used. Her temperature should not be too low, otherwise the peppers will begin to ache and die.Important! Watering is done by sprinkling to ensure that the liquid on the leaves and stems.
The first feeding is done when the second leaf appears on the peppers. Additionally, you can feed the plants with superphosphate and potassium solution. After 2 weeks, the second treatment is performed, when the peppers are released on the third sheet.
Periodically, the land in tanks need to loosen. Thus, the ability of the soil to pass moisture and air, as well as absorb nitrogen from urea, will improve. The room with the seedlings periodically air, but without creating drafts.
After transferring the peppers to the greenhouse or the ground, it is necessary to provide them with a constant feeding. Prior to flowering, the need of plants for nitrogen increases. With its deficiency, further plant growth is impossible.
Warm water is used to fertilize urea peppers. For this, containers with water are left in the sun, so that they warm up well, or they are put into a greenhouse.
The first fertilizing with urea is performed 10 days after the transplantation of plants to a permanent place. During this period, seedlings will get stronger and adapt to new conditions.Important! For the first treatment, urea (10 g) and superphosphate (5 g) per 10 liters of water are required.
All components are placed in water and mixed until dissolved. Each bush of peppers needs up to 1 l of water. When watering you need to make sure that the solution does not fall on the leaves.
The second dressing is carried out as the peppers grow until the inflorescence appears. During this period, plants need potassium, which contributes to the setting and ripening of fruits.
The second feeding is prepared from the following components:
- potassium salt - 1 tsp;
- carbamide - 1 tsp;
- superphosphate - 2 tbsp. l .;
- water - 10 l.
Top dressing during flowering
During the flowering period, plants require less nitrogen. Therefore, urea is combined with other minerals. If the peppers are fed exclusively with nitrogen, then the plants will direct all their forces to the formation of foliage and stems.Attention! To get a good harvest you need to combine urea with other types of fertilizers.
During flowering peppers can feed the following composition:
- urea - 20 g;
- superphosphate - 30 g;
- potassium chloride - 10 g;
- water - 10 l.
Another option of feeding is the solution of the following substances:
- urea - 1 tsp;
- potassium sulfate - 1 tsp;
- superphosphate - 2 tbsp. l .;
- water - 10 l.
After dissolving the components, the composition is used for irrigation. Complex fertilizers are effective in cases when it is difficult to determine by what external features what elements are missing from the peppers.
The components can be purchased separately and then mixed for solution. Another option is to buy ready-made fertilizer for pepper, where all the elements are already present in the required proportions.
Fertilizer for fruiting
Feed the peppers need after harvesting the first harvest. For the further formation of the ovary and the development of the fruit, the plants require a complex feeding:
- urea - 60 g;
- superphosphate - 60 g;
- potassium chloride - 20 g;
- water - 10 l.
During the fruiting period, top dressing, including mineral and organic components, is effective.
The following solutions are used to feed the peppers:
- urea - 1 tbsp. l .;
- mullein - 1 l;
- chicken droppings - 0.25 l.
The resulting solution is left for 5-7 days to allow it to infuse. On 1 square. m beds with peppers require 5 liters of this fertilizer. Fertilizing with organic substances is recommended when plants were previously treated with mineral components.
If the growth of the peppers has slowed down, the flowers fall off and the fruits have a curved shape, then it is allowed to perform additional feeding. There should be at least a week between treatments.
Additionally, ash is added under the peppers in the amount of 1 cup per 1 square meter. m. The lack of complex fertilizer reduces the number of ovaries and leads to falling off of the inflorescences.
Foliar top dressing
Mandatory stage of care for the peppers is foliar feeding. It is carried out by spraying the leaves of the plant with special solutions.Important! Foliar processing works faster than watering.
Nutrient absorption through the leaves is much faster than fertilizer at the root. You can see the results of the procedure in a few hours.
Spraying is especially effective when peppers are depressed and lacking nitrogen and other beneficial substances.
For foliar treatment requires less consumption of components than with watering. All trace elements are absorbed by the leaves of the peppers, and do not go into the soil.
For spraying the peppers with urea, a solution of a lower concentration is prepared than for root dressing. The procedure is carried out in the evening or in the morning to prevent the leaves of the plants from burning under the sun.Tip! If peppers grow on the street, spraying is carried out in the absence of rain and wind.
If it is necessary to stimulate the growth of plants, then 1 tsp is diluted with 10 liters of water. urea. For work the spray with a small nozzle is used.
Spray urea can be at the beginning of flowering peppers and throughout the entire period of fruiting. Between treatments should take up to 14 days.
Urea is the main fertilizer supplying nitrogen to the peppers. Processing plants is required at all stages of their life. When performing work, it is necessary to follow the established standards to avoid the appearance of burns on plants and excess nitrogen. Urea is applied to the soil or added to liquid fertilizers.
Urea is highly soluble in water and quickly absorbed by plants. The substance is used in combination with other mineral and organic fertilizers. To get a good harvest you need to root feed and sprinkle peppers. It is necessary to carry out work in case of cloudy weather and the absence of hot sunshine.