Sweet pepper is one of the most common vegetable crops. It is difficult to imagine a kitchen garden without this thermophilic plant. In our conditions, pepper is grown exclusively by seedlings, and the choice of variety or hybrid depends on climatic conditions. In the greenhouses can be planted any varieties suitable for protected ground. There you can meet all the requirements of this fanciful plant to temperature, watering, lighting. Open ground also involves careful selection of varieties, hybrids and the choice of a place for growing peppers.
Today we will talk about its proper planting, tell you when to plant pepper in the ground. If everything is done correctly in the initial stages, then it will be easier to care for it, and we will harvest a good crop.
Features of growing peppers
Peppers came to us from Mexico and Guatemala, which caused its needs:
- short, no more than 8 hours light day;
- moderate need for moisture;
- light fertile soils;
- increased doses of potash fertilizers.
Pepper is a rather capricious culture. It may happen that the variety you like can be planted only in the greenhouse. For regions with a cool climate and short summers, only low-growing early-ripening varieties with small or medium-sized, not too fleshy fruits are suitable.
Comment! Interestingly, early ripening varieties yield about twice as much as late ripening pepper.
Planting seedlings in the ground
We assume that we have chosen the right varieties and successfully grown seedlings. Now it remains only to transplant pepper into the soil and wait for the harvest.
Choosing a place
You can not plant pepper after other solanaceous crops - tomatoes, potatoes. They suffer from similar diseases, they are plagued by the same pests that often overwinter in the ground. To choose a place for planting peppers, it is necessary to take into account that this crop needs a short light day - it is impossible to get a good harvest in the area lit during the whole day.
Peppers should be protected from strong winds. It can be planted along the plantations of fruit bushes or trees, part of the daytime covering the plant from the sun and giving protection from the wind.
If you plant some pepper and do not plan to allocate a separate section for it, you can place bushes along the rows of tomatoes - then it will not be attacked by aphids.Important! It is impossible to take away low places under pepper where moisture accumulates and stagnates - this culture is relatively drought-resistant, it is better to skip watering than to overmoisten the soil.
For peppers suitable light fertile loam with a neutral reaction. Chernozems can not be prepared specifically for the planting of this culture, it will be enough of those fertilizers that you put into the hole during planting. But if the soil has been worked out, it has not been rested for a long time, it will not be out of place to bring in square meters m bucket of well-rotted humus.
- On heavy clay soils per square. m area under digging make 1 bucket of humus, peat, sand, 1/2 bucket of rotted sawdust.
- Peat land before planting pepper in open ground enrich with 1 bucket of humus and 1 - sod, it is possible clay soil.
- Before planting, 1 bucket of peat, clayey soil and rotted sawdust are introduced into the sandy soil, 2 buckets of humus per 1 square meter.
Comment! We have indicated how to enrich various soils without taking into account agrotechnical measures carried out in previous years. If you regularly spend them, adjust the addition of additional components in the direction of reduction.
Of course, it is best to prepare the soil in the fall, but it is not forbidden to do this in the spring, only no later than 6 weeks before the pepper is planted in the ground, otherwise it simply will not have time to sag.
Do not plant pepper in cold ground. It should warm up well and have a temperature of at least 15-16 degrees, and the threat of repeated spring frosts should also pass.Tip! It is better to plant the pepper later for a few days - it will only slightly delay its ripening.
If you plant peppers in open ground, when it is still cold, the seedlings may die, you will have to buy new plants on the market. Not only that, all the work expended on the cultivation of seedlings will go to ashes. You can not be sure that buy exactly the right brand.
Although an established pepper is able to withstand a short-term decrease in temperature to minus one degree, at 15 it stops developing. No one, especially in the northwest, can guarantee that after a few warm weeks the weather will not deteriorate and the temperature will not fall. Be ready for this, pre-build above the garden bed with strong wire arc. At the slightest threat of frost on the ground, cover the landing with agrofibre, spunbond or film. Shelter is opened for the day, and at night they are returned to the place.Comment! Perhaps we will need the wire arrays in the future - already covering the pepper from the sun, so make them conscientiously.
The distance between the seedlings planted in the ground is very important for the pepper, it will necessarily affect the yield and condition of vegetables. We must remember that this plant suffers greatly from excessive illumination. With a certain concentration of pepper planting, the leaves protect the fruit from the sun's rays, protecting them from burns. But with very dense planting, loosening and weeding the soil is difficult, the fruits will grow smaller than they could, besides excessively thickened plantings provoke stem rot.
Remember that each hybrid or variety of pepper has a certain area of nutrition, when planting seedlings follow the instructions given on the bags of seeds. It makes sense if you buy certified planting material from proven manufacturers.
The general recommendations for planting pepper are as follows:
- Plant seedlings at a distance of 35-40 cm between the bushes, one or two plants in the nest, the gap between the rows - 70 cm;
- It is convenient to plant pepper in open ground in two lines - two contiguous rows are at a distance of 30 cm, between plants 20-25 cm, the next pair is 70 cm from the first. With such planting, only one plant per each well.
Important! If you plant tall varieties that require garters, the distance between rows and plants should be increased.
In hot sundials, planting peppers is unacceptable - it is better to do this in the late afternoon or on a cloudy day. On the eve of the landing in the ground well water the plant. Dig holes so deep that the seedlings fit in there with a clod of earth.
Pour a tablespoon of chlorine-free potash fertilizer (it is not transferred with pepper) or a special pepper fertilizer according to the instructions in each planting well. To protect against pests, potash fertilizer can be replaced with a handful of ash or crushed egg shells. If the humus is not brought under the digging of the soil, throw it directly into the hole at the rate of 1-2 handfuls under the root.
Fill the hole with water as soon as it is absorbed, proceed to the landing. Carefully remove the seedlings, trying not to destroy the earthen room and thus not damage the fragile root. When planting pepper in open ground, it should not be buried, plant seedlings in the same way as it grew in a pot.Comment! Addition roots on the stem of this plant are not formed, therefore, there is a danger of rotting when it is deepened by more than 1-1.5 cm.
Condense the soil around the pepper, immediately tie up tall varieties to the pegs. If there is a possibility, immediately muffle the planting with peat - this will prevent the ground from drying out and will prevent the growth of weeds.
If you live in regions with a cold climate, it makes sense to cover the ground with a covering material.
Departure after landing
Pepper care begins immediately after planting seedlings in the ground. This culture is extremely demanding for care, especially for food and watering. If, when planting in the ground, you poured fertilizer into the hole, then for the next two weeks, during which rooting of the seedlings takes place, you can forget about feeding. But the mistakes in watering, committed at first, are fraught with low yield, and sometimes the death of plants.
A certain amount of planting pepper does not necessarily take root, so dead plants should be replaced by seedlings, left for these purposes. Fallouts occur for various reasons, but the damage caused by the winter scoop and the bear is in the first place.
Sometimes the number of dead plants ranges from 10 to 20% and if we do not replace the peppers dropped by others, the crop will decrease significantly. In addition, with a significant number of missing plants, the shading, which we sought a dense planting, will disappear. This may cause sunburn of the ovary, especially the very first fruits.
On light sandy soils, with withering winds and prolonged drought, which is accompanied by heat, the death of peppers can occur as a result of wilting. This is especially common in the southern regions and with sprawling seedlings.
When growing peppers in the soil, the importance of irrigation is difficult to overestimate. Give universal advice when and how to water the plant is impossible. In Kuban, pepper is an exclusively irrigated crop, but in regions with a large amount of precipitation falling in summer, it can be grown, in general, without them.
Pepper's regenerative abilities are much inferior to tomatoes, and rooting takes a long time. Even a minimal disturbance to the irrigation regime and a change in temperature can cause a delay in survival and in some cases lead to the death of the plant. Most often blunders gardeners admit when moistening the soil.
The first time the pepper is watered when planted in the ground, no need to hurry with the following. If the plant becomes a bit hot on a hot sunny day, do not rush to pour water on it - this is not dangerous and is not an indication for immediate hydration. If early morning and evening leaves look up, water early.
To correctly determine the need for pepper irrigation, follow the plant and determine the degree of soil moisture.Important! Pepper can lower the leaves, not only with a lack of moisture in the soil, but also from its excess.
In order to determine the humidity, take a handful of earth from a depth of about 10 cm and squeeze it tightly in your fist:
- The soil is dry if the lump crumbled after you opened your fist.
- If water is trickling through your fingers, the ground is too wet.
- The lump remained lying in your palm and did not lose shape. Throw it to the ground. If it crumbled, watering may be required soon. If a lump of cake spreads - forget for a while about soil moistening.
Pepper should not be watered a second time, until it is properly rooted. This will happen when the upper and then lower leaves darken first. When the increase appears, we can assume that the pepper has taken root. After planting, the roots are restored on average 10 days.
Attention! If you grow a crop on light, fast-drying soils, and the earth, when it is compressed into a lump, signals a lack of moisture, make a second, very scarce watering several days after the first.
At the beginning of the growing season, watering is rarely given, their number depends on precipitation and the composition of the soil. It must be remembered that irrigation is carried out more frequently on light sandy soils. The need for pepper in moisture increases with the onset of fruit ripening.
At one of the stages of development it is impossible to allow soaking of this culture - the leaves turn yellow, the flowers and ovary fall off, the plant becomes sick. On heavy soils after overflowing, pepper often does not recover and dies.
Inter-row processing is carried out not only to destroy weeds, but also to retain moisture. In order to reduce evaporation and reduce the number of irrigations, the soil is loosened after each one. Sandy soils are treated to 5-6 cm, clay - to a depth of 10 cm.Important! Between the first two irrigations, loosening is not carried out, as this can injure the root and delay the plant's engraftment.
It is important to treat the soil carefully, as the pepper has superficial roots that are poorly restored. Any damage to them leads to a long delay in plant development.
Plant can not do without dressings. Organic and mineral fertilizers are used for them, the latter being best used using special ones intended for pepper.
The first dressing is given the next day after the first loosening, when the pepper is well rooted, the next - after the start of the formation of the ovaries.
Pleasant and not so neighborhood
If you are not a farmer, able to allocate a separate field for each crop, you will have to choose the neighbors' pepper. It will grow well next to onions, spinach, coriander, tomatoes and basil. It is not recommended to plant the pepper next to the beans, fennel or to the place where the beets were grown before. And this is not superstition, but the result of serious research, under which the scientific base is made.Attention! If you grow sweet and bitter pepper, do not plant them nearby. From such a neighborhood, sweet pepper becomes bitter.
Planting pepper seedlings is no more difficult than any other. Among the instructions on what to do next, a list of what should not be done prevails. Let's take care of the plant properly, grow a good harvest and provide ourselves with delicious and vitamin-rich products for the winter.