Quail breeds are divided into three types: egg, meat and decorative. In practice, some species have universal use.
English quail description
The breed is egg, but it is used both for the production of eggs and for slaughtering for meat. The main advantages of English quail:
- High productivity;
- Universal use in the economy;
- Unpretentious content;
- Easily tolerate short-term lowering of air temperature.
English quails have two varieties - with white and black plumage. They differ slightly mainly in appearance. The differences can be seen in the photo.
English white quail has white feathers, sometimes with small black spots. The eyes are light brown, the beak and paws are light. Pink quail carcass, excellent presentation.
English black quail is distinguished by its decorative effect; its plumage has various shades of brown and black. Photos poorly convey the beauty of this bird. The eyes of the quail are golden, the beak is black.
Black quail meat has a dark shade, sometimes it is called "black." After cooking this feature is preserved.
Females of English quails begin to rush at the age of 6 weeks, in favorable conditions they can produce up to 280 eggs per year.
Efficiency - 280 eggs per year. Egg weight an average of 14 grams. Feed consumption is small - about 35 grams of feed is needed per individual per day. Chicks appear from 85% of eggs.
The average weight of a female is 200 g, the males on average have a mass of not more than 170 g.
English quail broilers are larger. The weight of the female can reach 300 grams, the weight of the male - 260 grams.
Sex differences are determined rather late, it is difficult to distinguish a male from a female before they reach 7 weeks.
Care for English quails
English black quail is undemanding in care. For the successful breeding of birds of this breed it is necessary to follow simple rules:
- Monitor the temperature and humidity;
- Ensure regular cell cleaning;
- Birds should have constant access to feed and water;
- Regularly process cells and quails from skin parasites;
- Provide a variety of feed.
English black quail bred in England and adapted to its climate. They easily tolerate high humidity, short-term lowering of temperature up to 3 degrees Celsius. Do not like the heat and dry air. Regularly rush at air temperatures from 18 to 26 degrees Celsius, with increasing or decreasing temperatures, productivity decreases.
Cell cleaning is carried out at least once a week, at air temperatures above 30 degrees - every other day. If cleaning is less common, litter and food residues will begin to decompose, and active reproduction of mold fungi will begin. Birds, devouring moldy food, fall ill as it is toxic to quails.
The stomach of quails has a small volume, the food is digested rather quickly. If feed is too rare, the bird overeat, it can cause various diseases of the digestive system.
Birds from skin parasites are treated at least once a month. The need to free the cell from quails during processing is determined depending on the toxicity of the drug. It is advisable to choose chemicals with low toxicity.Tip! Quails willingly bathe in wood ash, which is a natural prophylactic against parasites.
It is necessary to make sure that it does not contain harmful substances that can be formed, for example, when burning plastic bags.
It is very important to monitor the diversity of feed to avoid nutrient deficiencies in birds. For the prevention of vitamin deficiencies in English black quails, you can add fresh herbs, vegetables and fruits to your feed. The remains of food, fruits and vegetables are cleaned daily, avoiding spoilage.
Content in cells
In most regions of Russia, a well-lit, heated room is necessary for keeping the English black quail year-round. They do not tolerate low temperatures. To obtain eggs, an air temperature of about 20 degrees and illumination of at least 17 hours a day are necessary.Important! If the room is heated by electric heaters, it is necessary to place open containers with water in it. English quails do not like dry air.
Indoors place cells for quail, often in several tiers. The height of the cage should not exceed 30 cm. Usually they make 4 tiers, so as not to complicate bird care. The photo shows the approximate arrangement of the cage for the English quail.
The cell volume is calculated based on the number of quails that will be placed in it. One bird needs at least 20 cm of surface. English quails cannot be kept in closer conditions - cannibalism develops among birds, weak quails can peck. In addition, the productivity of English quail significantly reduced.
Content in the aviary
Many gardeners do not contain English black quails all year round, but only during the warm season. At the end of the season, quails are slaughtered.
English black quail early birds. They begin to rush at the beginning of the third month of life, at the same time you can begin slaughtering for meat. For 4 months of the warm season, from one quail grown from daily chicken, you can get at least 40 eggs.
To save money, they do not equip a special room for the seasonal maintenance of the English black quail; The volume of the enclosure is determined on the basis of the calculation - at least 15 cm of surface is required per bird. The approximate equipment of the enclosure for quails is shown in the photo.
Important! The quail enclosure should be protected from drafts that can trigger an outbreak of infectious diseases in English black quail.
For English black quails use two types of feed - industrial production and manufactured independently. Choosing ready-made feed for quails, it is desirable to take into account the characteristics of the manufacturer.
Feed for English black quails should include the following components:
- Vitamin complex.
Industrial feeds contain all the nutrients necessary for birds, often sand may be contained. Additional components to make in the feed is not required. Description of the composition is usually on the package.Important! Ready-made feeds contain protein, which, if improperly stored, easily deteriorates. It is necessary to closely monitor the storage conditions of the feed.
When preparing feed yourself, it is necessary to strictly observe the proportions; an unbalanced diet can cause various diseases in black quails.
When breeding English black quail for meat use a special diet. Feed must be balanced, contain all the necessary nutrients, greens. To increase the fat content of the bird, for two weeks before slaughter, sunflower cake is added to the food for quails.Tip! The addition of table quails to the feed increases the weight of the carcass by up to 10% by increasing the water content. Such grilled meat turns out to be much more juicy.
Breeding quails is becoming increasingly popular due to simple care and excellent taste qualities of the resulting products. The majority of summer residents, having tried to contain these birds, continue this fascinating and profitable occupation.