Low-growing varieties of eggplants are the ideal choice for those who want to grow this crop for the first time in their garden or in a greenhouse. The advantages of planting these eggplants are that the plant is formed independently, does not require staking and tying, and it is much easier to care for it than for ordinary varietal ones.
Choice of undersized variety
The selection criteria for seeds of stunted eggplant varieties are not much different from the usual ones. The first thing that needs to be determined is whether the plant will be grown in open ground or under greenhouse conditions. The choice in favor of varieties resistant to temperature extremes, various diseases in the conditions of open soil, or, conversely, heat-loving plants adapted to artificial lighting depends on this.Attention! Do not forget that growing an undersized eggplant, like any other vegetable, depends on the climatic conditions of the region in which you live. The same stunted varieties grown in the north or south may vary in size and taste.
On the shelves of shops and agricultural markets you can see the seeds of stunted eggplant with some marks on the package. They mainly characterize growing conditions and resistance to the most common diseases.
Meaning of symbols on eggplant seed packages:
- V - resistance to verticillary wilt;
- C - resistance to kapposporiozu;
- Tm - high resistance to tobacco mosaic virus;
- N - resistance to nematode damage;
- G - prevention against fusarial wilt
- R - resistance to late blight.
Most often, on the package with seeds of stunted hybrids eggplant is written not one, but several characters. This suggests that the variety is bred by breeders with increased resistance to viruses and infections characteristic of a particular region. Also on the packaging must necessarily be stated that the variety of eggplant refers to the determinant (limited in growth).
To date, there are many varieties and hybrids undersized eggplant. Select the appropriate grade for you will help complete information about the variety and advice of an experienced gardener.
Cultivation and care
If you grow seedlings of eggplant from seed at home, pay attention to the fact that undersized varieties sprout without pickling grow within one and a half months, and requiring pick picking - up to two months. When planting seeds, be sure to consider this fact so as not to overplay the seedlings in greenhouse conditions and transplant it into the soil in time.
Eggplant is one of the plants that doesn’t tolerate transplantation, so seedlings need to be grown in special planting peat pots. Low-growing varieties of eggplants sprout well at a temperature of 23-250C. As soon as the shoots appear above the ground, the temperature is lowered to 19-20.0C, and maintain seedlings in this mode for 2-3 days. After that, the temperature is raised again to 23-250WITH.
Two to three days before transplanting stunted eggplants in open ground, seedlings are adapted to direct sunlight. To do this, planting containers with seedlings daily endure in the open sun, gradually increasing the hardening time from 15 minutes to 1 hour.
Planting in open ground
Low-growing varieties of eggplants are planted on open ground as follows:
- Equal beds with planting grooves and holes for eggplants are set up at the site;
- The distance between the beds should not be less than 50 cm;
- The distance between the holes - in the range of 25-35 cm.
Before planting the seedlings, the wells are poured abundantly with warm, settled water, then the eggplants are dipped into them and sprinkled with a dry substrate. The next watering is carried out only for 2-3 days. This method will allow low-growing varieties to take root well.
The first time fertilizer is applied to the soil at 2-3 weeks after planting the seedlings, and then feeding is repeated every 3 weeks. Previously, fertilizer is not recommended, because eggplant is a crop with weak roots and is not able to absorb large amounts of nutrients at early stages of development. For all the time of growth undersized eggplant must be done at least 5 dressings.
Attention! Before the appearance of the first fruits on the plant, eggplant is fed exclusively with mineral fertilizers.
After low-growing eggplants start to produce fruits, it is recommended to inject a top-dressing containing nitrogen-phosphate elements. To do this, in 10 liters of warm water dilute 1 teaspoon of ammonium nitrate and 1 tablespoon of superphosphate. Fertilizer is introduced into the soil with caution, since phosphate fertilizer actively influences the growth of the leaf and the stem, but not the fruit itself.
Of the natural fertilizers for feeding stunted eggplants, gardeners use the drug "Biud", one of the components of which is mullein. It is necessary to part means with observance of the proportions specified in the instruction. To date, "Biud" is considered the best organic fertilizer to stimulate the growth of fruits.
In the process of growth, mineral, nitrogen and organic fertilizers must be alternated, and during the period of fruit ripening, add some ash to the soil.
The best varieties of undersized eggplants
You can grow a rich and high-quality harvest of eggplants only if you have correctly selected a variety, with appropriate fruit ripening periods and resistance to possible temperature fluctuations in your region. We recall that the F1 symbol in the name of the variety suggests that it was bred by breeders by crossing two plants with a pronounced strong immunity.
Variety refers to the early ripe eggplants with high yields. Suitable for planting and cultivation in greenhouses and greenhouses, and in open ground.
Fully ripe eggplants appear on the bush 3-3.5 months after the first shoot of the seedlings. The bushes of the plant during the period of full growth do not exceed a height of 50-60 cm. The fruits have a smooth cylindrical shape, the skin is smooth and shiny with a dark purple color, and the pulp has a dense white structure. The average weight of one fruit in the period of ripening 140-160gr.
The plant is classified as mid-season. Full ripening occurs at 110-120 days after seedlings emerge. Bush in height does not exceed 55-60 cm.
Eggplants have a light purple skin and white flesh. The average weight of one fruit during full ripening can reach 350-400 grams.
The peculiarities of this stunted variety include extraordinary fecundity. From one bush, rarely growing above 50 cm, in a season they take up to 8-10 kg of vegetables.
Fully ripe fruit weight - 150-170 g. Novice gardeners planting "Almaz" in greenhouses and on open ground, note another unusual feature - all eggplants are "hidden" under the dense green foliage of the plant.
F1 Bull Heart
This hybrid belongs to group of mid-season fruitful eggplants. Vegetation begins in the third month after transplanting seedlings into open ground. In a greenhouse climate, the first ripening occurs after 2-2.5 months. Features varieties - strong and powerful bushes, up to 70 cm high. Eggplant fruits have a rounded, slightly elongated shape. The average weight of the fetus during ripening reaches 400-450 grams. The skin is shiny, smooth, painted in a dark purple color. Characteristic taste - eggplant is almost devoid of bitterness inherent in this culture.
The plant belongs to the early maturing varieties of short hybrids. It is grown up both in the conditions of hotbeds and greenhouses, and on an open ground. Of all the varieties, this is the highest - the bushes are drawn up to 75-80 cm. The average mass of a full-grown fruit is 500 grams. Color eggplant smooth, dark purple in some cases, close to the black color. Bourgeois - one of those varieties that have excellent shipping data. Even with long shipments, they do not lose their presentation.
Black moon F1
This hybrid is created by breeders specifically for growing on open ground. The ovary can appear even when the temperature drops to 13-150C. Shrubs reach a height of 65-70 cm. The first fruits ripen on the 3rd month after the emergence of the seedlings. Eggplants are small and slightly thinned cylindrical. The weight of the fruit in the period of full maturation - 200-250 grams.
And finally, the best eggplant from a variety of undersized
Hybrid Robin Hood
The plant is completely resistant to any changes in temperature and humidity. Does not require regular additional fertilizing, and at the same time begins the growing season at 70-80 days from the first shoots.
Shrub, reaching a height of 80-90 cm. The average weight of the fetus - 250-300 cm, color - light lilac. Another important feature of the variety is that bushes can be compacted up to 5 pcs per 1m when planted.2that is important in small suburban areas.
Low-growing eggplants, which appeared on our gardens relatively recently, are quickly gaining popularity among gardeners. New varieties of hybrids appear on the shelves, bred and adapted for planting in central Russia. When buying seeds for seedlings, be sure to pay attention to the instructions for the care of the plant. Often, the manufacturer supplies the planting material already pre-treated and disinfected.
The video provides interesting information and tips on growing low-growing varieties of eggplant.