In the spring, strawberries begin to grow and gradually recover after a long winter sleep. Along with it, pests waking up that hibernated on bushes and in the soil, activate various diseases. How to help weakened plants after winter to cope with these troubles? Processing strawberries in early spring is a very important event that helps plants to overcome the effects of winter and throw all their strength into the fastest yield formation.
Spring work on strawberry beds
But before processing, you need to put things in order on the strawberry beds, do a spring-cleaning.
- Remove shelter from strawberry bushes, if any.
- Remove last year’s mulch from the beds, it is better to burn it and not to throw it into the compost pile. It can be a lot of pests and pathogens.
- To clear strawberry bushes from dried leaves, they not only prevent plants from developing, but also serve as a haven for pests and can carry sources of infection. It is better not to tear off the leaves, and cut them with shears, so as not to accidentally pull out the bushes.
- To conduct an audit of overwintered plants, removing the sick and the dead.
- To plant on the vacant places the reserve strawberry bushes formed from the daughter outlets of the last year. When planting bushes, first spill the planting fossa with a solution of phytosporin prepared from 10 g of powder and 10 liters of non-hot water, leave in the shade for 2 hours. Per well need 0.5 liters of solution. Treatment with Phytosporin destroys the causative agents of fungal diseases.
- Remove or transplant extra strawberry plants to another bed so that the plantings are not dense.
Each strawberry bush requires a certain area of nutrition. If the distance between the bushes is less than necessary for this variety, it will inevitably affect the quality of the crop and reduce its quantity.
- An important event - loosening the land around strawberries to a shallow depth. Under the action of melt water, the land on strawberry beds is compacted, which impairs the air supply to the roots, which is also necessary for the development of beneficial soil microorganisms. Lack of oxygen reduces soil fertility. Loosening will help the soil to warm up faster. If strawberry bushes have bare roots, they need to pile up.
- After winter, the first thing that begins to grow in strawberries is young leaves. A sufficient amount of leaves through the process of photosynthesis helps feed the flowers and young ovaries. Therefore, it is necessary to feed the strawberries in early spring.
Spring dressing strawberriesA warning! If strawberries are planted last fall, it should not be fed in the spring.
Young bushes enough food, planted during planting.
But biennial, and even more so, three-year-old strawberry plants need nutrition for development.Attention! When feeding, it is very important to apply a correctly calculated amount of fertilizer.
With insufficient quantities of it will be a shortage of the crop. Oddly enough, but the same result will be with excessive nutrition, especially with a predominance of nitrogen fertilizers.
If there is too much nitrogen, the strawberries will start to build up the leaf mass to the detriment of flowering and fruiting. What to feed strawberries in early spring? Each type of fertilizer - organic or mineral has its advantages.
Mineral fertilizers usually contain macro and micronutrients in the form available for the plant, so they quickly come to them, but also quickly washed out into the lower layers of the soil during watering or rain.
Organic fertilizers contain the same nutrients as minerals, but it takes time to decompose to make organic matter available to plants. The decomposition of organic matter releases a lot of carbon dioxide, which strawberries need for good development. Manure, humus, chicken manure contain microorganisms necessary for soil to improve fertility. Mineral fertilizers do not have this feature.Tip! With a high content of humus in the soil, which happens if the organic matter is applied systematically, it is better to choose a full mineral fertilizer in a small dosage for spring dressing of strawberries.
If the soil is poor, it is better to choose fertilizing with organic matter, but enrich it with ash and superphosphate.
The scheme of feeding strawberries in the following spring:
- Special complex fertilizer for berry crops, or intended specifically for strawberries, is applied according to the standards in a dry form directly under the bushes, followed by loosening, provided that there is enough moisture in the soil. If there was little snow in the winter, and the land has already dried, it is better to combine strawberry feeding with irrigation and fertilizer solution added to the bushes. It is diluted according to the instructions on the package and is fed in accordance with it.
- As an organic solution suitable fermented mullein. In a bucket stack fresh cow dung at half volume. Pour it with water and give ferment. To this amount, you can add a quarter liter of ash and 60 g of superphosphate. After 1-2 weeks the fertilizer is ready for use. When feeding with 7-9 l of water, add 1 l of solution. Consumption - 10 liters per square. Bird droppings need to be diluted 1 part to 10 parts of water for fresh and twice as much water for dry. He does not need to wander. When feeding with 9 liters of water, add 1 l of solution.
Preventive strawberry plantation
Spring strawberry processing is an important event, they should not be neglected, especially if signs of diseases or the spread of pests were observed last season.
Very little time is allotted for the preventive processing of strawberries, as it begins to bloom in May, and it is undesirable to use chemical protection during the flowering and, especially, fruiting.
Strawberries, like all other plants, have their own diseases, about 20 of which are affected by pests. Proper processing of strawberries in spring requires some knowledge and ability to understand the signs of various diseases.
Many strawberry diseases are caused by fungi.
The disease that develops most quickly with high humidity and weak circulation. Signs of powdery mildew: white spotted bloom on all parts of plants. The disease begins with the stalks and quickly captures the entire bush. Spores of the fungus are transmitted from plant to plant and can leave the gardener not only without a harvest, but without the strawberries themselves. Processing strawberries in the spring will help get rid of the powdery mildew causative agent before fruiting.
The disease manifests itself when the berries ripen, they rot, becoming covered with gray mold, which is a fungal spore. Treat strawberries from this disease in early spring. Affected berries put in a separate container and destroy.A warning! Do not leave diseased strawberries on the site, spores of fungal diseases are easily spread even by wind.
The disease manifests itself in years with low temperature and high humidity. The leaves of the strawberry brighten and become covered with white bloom, the berries rot. The spread of the disease contributes to too frequent planting of strawberries and poor weeding plantations.
The disease only affects strawberries, which become watery and turn black. For the prevention of disease should not often plant bushes and re-moisten the soil.
Various spots are also of a mushroom nature: white, brown, and black or anthracnose, which initially infect strawberry leaves, covering them with small specks of various colors, and then capturing the entire plant as a whole. It begins to lag behind in growth, but you can not talk about getting a crop.
Phytophthalosis or phytophthalous rot of strawberries is caused by fungi - a dangerous disease, the result of which is the death of the plant. The first berries are affected, and then the whole plant wilts. It is necessary to start treatment for late blight in early spring, without waiting for the development of the disease.
Fusarium wilt also leads to the same result. It manifests itself during the formation of the crop. The distinguishing feature is the dark color of the leaves of the plant, which wither. The disease affects the conducting vessels of strawberries. To help a sick plant is impossible. It will have to burn.
Verticillous wilting of strawberries
The disease begins at the end of May and reaches its peak after harvest. At first chlorosis appears on the leaves of plants, they begin to lag behind in growth, their number decreases. A characteristic feature is the red color of the stalks at the end of the growing season of strawberries. In light soils, the fulminant course of the disease with the death of plants already in 3 days is possible; in other soils, the disease lasts longer, but ultimately it still leads to the death of the plant.
Attention! Almost all diseases caused by pathogens, fungi, thrive in conditions of high humidity and crowding of plants.
Therefore, along with the treatments, it is necessary to water the strawberries properly and not plant the bushes too thickly so that they can be aired well.
Preventive spring treatments
Since the vast majority of strawberry diseases are fungal in nature, strawberries in spring will have to be treated with products that actively fight various fungi.
Best of all fungal diseases resist drugs containing copper: hom, Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate. You can use systemic fungicides with a wide range of action. These are Horus, Topaz - which are hazard class 3 and Fundazole is a very effective drug, but it has hazard class 2. Processing with foundation should be carried out as early as possible, so that by the time the flower stalk nominates, harmful substances are already removed from the plants.
A warning! The drug foundation is incompatible with copper-containing substances.
All of these substances are unsafe for humans.
How to process strawberries in order to maintain plant health and grow organic berries?
They may be less effective, but they are definitely safer for humans and beneficial insects.
- Phytosporin is a contact microbiological fungicide that fights well against plant fungal infections. A significant drawback - quickly washed off during rain and watering, therefore, requires repeated treatment. Phytosporin is not dangerous to humans, strawberries can be processed at any stage of development.
- Processing strawberries with iodine is a simple but fairly effective means. Usually, 15 to 20 drops of iodine and a glass of homemade whey are added to a 10 liter bucket. The multiplicity of treatment is not more than two every 10 days. This method of processing strawberries is also effective against pests.
- Planting strawberry onions and garlic in between rows.
Phytoncides of these plants deter strawberry pests and help fight diseases. In addition, it is possible to harvest two crops from one area.
- Pine needles poured an equal amount of boiling water. Insist during the day, diluted five times and sprayed berry.
- Processing infusion horse sorrel. In a plastic bucket fold as much crushed horse sorrel, how many will enter, pour hot water and let it brew for 7-14 days. Dilute the infusion ten times and water or sprinkle the strawberry bushes.
The composition of horse sorrel contains flavonoids and antibacterial substances that are effective against fungal diseases. This infusion is also good for caterpillars on cabbage.
- In the spring, it is good to treat strawberry plantation with hot water. This procedure should be carried out while the air temperature is low and the snow has not melted yet. Pour water into a watering can with a temperature of 70-80 degrees and water the plants. When watering, the water cools and does not burn the strawberry bushes, but it destroys pathogens and pests.
Often, diseases and pests come to a new place with strawberry planting material. To disinfect it, it is necessary to sustain the roots of seedlings in phytosporin solution. In 5 liters of water 10 g of powder is diluted. The solution is incubated for 2 hours to hay bacillus, which is the active ingredient of the drug, intensified. The roots of the seedlings need to be kept in the solution also for 2 hours. To destroy the pests they can also be kept in water with a temperature of 45 degrees for about a quarter of an hour.
On garden strawberries often pests settle, which not only can leave a gardener without a crop, but also destroy the whole berry.
It is difficult to fight nematodes on strawberries. There is no fully effective treatment for them. All methods used can only reduce their number. You can recommend drugs piperazine and decaris, effective against worms. But this is a temporary measure, as they act only on adults. They scare away nematode, but marigold and marigold do not destroy it. Planted among strawberries, they displace most of the pests from the site. You can handle strawberries and infusion of these plants.
Spring processing from nematodes is carried out with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. You can use the drug Phosphamide, which destroys and tick. The effect of the drug after treatment lasts 20 days.
Folk recipe from nematodes: a bucket of nettle leaves poured boiling water. The bushes and the ground around them are poured over the solution for 4 days. When processing you need to make sure that all the leaves were wetted with a solution.
Of the chemical preparations suitable karbofos and colloidal sulfur. But processing by them is possible only at a temperature not lower than 15 degrees Celsius, at a lower temperature it is not effective.Attention! Colloidal sulfur or its analogue - the preparation Tiovit Jet is simultaneously a contact fungicide, acaricide, because it inhibits the development of ticks and macrofertilizers.
The period from processing to harvesting can be only 3 days.
Suitable and drug Neoron. It is a contact insecticide, effective against all types of ticks. It has a hazard class 4 and is not toxic to beneficial insects. Neoron should not be mixed with other chemicals. The period of the protective action of the drug to 20 days.Attention! To Neoron act, the treatment of strawberry plants should be carried out very carefully, wetting and the bottom surface of the leaves.
Help and drug Fitoverm. It is a biological acaricide and insecticide that not only destroys the tick, but also fights with aphids and weevils.
From folk remedies for the treatment of spring strawberries, an extract of onion peel will suit - 200 g per 10 l. After a five-day infusion, the plants are sprayed. Processing plants infusion of dandelion leaves is also a good and safe way. For 1 kg of fresh leaves (you can replace 500 g of roots) you need 10 liters of hot water with a temperature of 50 degrees. The process of insisting lasts only 4 hours. Strained infusion carefully process the strawberry bushes, not forgetting the underside of the leaves.Attention! This infusion is used immediately after preparation.
The same measures are applied to protect against spider mites.
Inta-vir is suitable from spring chemicals. The biological preparations Spark-bio and Nemabak help well.Attention! Weevils mainly damage the buds and flowers of strawberries, so any processing from them should be carried out before the nomination of peduncles, and even better in the phase of the beginning of the growth of leaves.
Plant onion and garlic on strawberry beds, spread fern leaves under bushes. There is a very simple way to scare away this pest: sprinkle the soil lightly with dental powder. Also acts and scattered around the bushes ash. Do not let the beetle carry harmful activity and infusions of hot pepper, tansy and wormwood. The strawberry leaves they have processed are not to your taste. 100 g of mustard powder dissolved in 3 liters of water is an excellent treatment.
5 g of potassium permanganate, dissolved in 10 liters of water intended for processing strawberries, will not only scare off the weevil, but also help from gray rot and powdery mildew.A warning! If raspberry grows next to strawberries, you can also treat it as the weevil is their common pest.
It must be remembered that pests and diseases are attacked first of all by weakened plants. Properly care for strawberries, follow all the rules of agricultural technology, take into account the requirements of a particular variety, improve plant immunity with the help of immunostimulants and the number of treatments can be reduced.
The spring processing of strawberries from pests and diseases is a guarantee of the continued health of the plants and the production of a decent harvest of tasty berries.