Strawberries are found on garden plots in almost all gardeners. This tasty and juicy berries like both adults and children. Nevertheless, not everyone knows how to grow it properly. The yield and size of the berries depends on the care of plants. To get good results of your work, you need to know all the secrets of growing strawberries in the open field. In this article we will try to make out all the details of caring for this plant.
It happens that planting homemade strawberries on your plot, you can get quite poor harvest. Sometimes the berries grow small or rotten. Not always delight and taste of strawberries. Instead of juicy and fleshy fruits, sour and watery often grow. But this is not a reason to despair and quit. First of all, you need to learn all the basic technology of growing strawberries. It is necessary to start from the garden and its location. It is on the choice of the site half the job.
Strawberry beds should not be on the site, which is blown from all sides by the winds. In winter, this place should be covered with snow for 20 or 30 cm. Also remember that strawberries will not bear fruit in the shade, so choose a site with good lighting.Important! It is desirable that the bed was flat. A slight slope to the southwest is allowed.
Strawberries will grow poorly in a deep place. On such a bed, cold air will always accumulate, which is why bushes get sick and give a very late harvest. On the south side, the snow will come off quickly, and the strawberries will remain defenseless before the spring frosts. To avoid fungal diseases, strawberries should be transplanted to a new location every 2-4 years. Also, it is impossible to thicken strawberry bushes. In this case, the berries will be very small. The best distance between the bushes is about 50 cm.
Any type of soil is suitable for growing strawberries. In this regard, strawberries are quite unpretentious plant. Strawberry feels best on black soil. Also, before growing strawberries, a little ash can be added to the soil. It is not advisable to bring peat into the soil for growing this plant. Too acidic soils will not work either.
Before planting it is necessary to prepare the soil. Particularly in need are areas that previously have not been planted with anything. It is necessary to ensure that there are no larvae of May beetles or wireworms in the ground. These pests can actively destroy bushes in the winter. Moreover, one larva of the beetle can cope with 1 m2 bedsAttention! To fight the larvae, it is advisable to plant an alkaloid lupine in the garden bed. From its eating the larvae begin to die. It is also possible to introduce ammonia into the soil in the form of a solution. This will help in a short time to defeat the pest.
To facilitate the work, you can use geotextiles. This modern material will not allow weeds to germinate, as it does not let in light. At the same time, geotextiles do not prevent the ingress of moisture. Many gardeners are happy to use this material, thereby saving time and effort.
Spring site for planting bushes need to dig and align with a rake. Further, it can make compost. Recently it has become popular to use agrofiber in garden beds with strawberries. It is spread on the surface of the ground, holes are made on the film, and then holes are made in them for bushes. They are poured abundantly with water, and then they plant the seedlings themselves. Agrofibre is one of the best materials for growing various crops. It does not let the light through, so that weeds cannot grow, but it passes moisture well.
Ruberoid can also be used for this purpose. Only now will have to think about the construction of a drip irrigation system. Hoses must be placed under the roofing felt in the form of a snake. You can purchase special hoses for drip irrigation or make holes on your own (using a gypsy needle or sewed). It is necessary to place a container with water near the bed, and attach a hose to it. Often do not need to irrigate the soil, as the roofing material perfectly retains moisture in the soil.
Selection of strawberries for planting
For a better crop, you should choose new elite varieties of strawberries. When buying bushes, ask if the seedlings were sorted and rehabilitated. First of all, pay attention to the root system of strawberries. Root processes must be at least 7 cm in length, and the root collar is at least 5-7 cm in diameter.
Some gardeners independently prepare seedlings. To do this, in the autumn you need to dig up young bushes, and then put them in a dark, cool place. In the cellar bushes can be stored until the spring. After that, they are planted on the garden bed as described above.
In the spring, before planting strawberries in the open field, it is necessary to take the seedlings to a shaded place and leave them there for 5 days. The hole for planting strawberries should be of such height that the roots can be freely located in it. The root neck should be flush with the ground. If the root system is too long, it is shortened, leaving about 10 cm.
Agricultural technology of growing strawberries in the open field
Strawberries ripen much faster on the beds from the south-west side. A slight slope is allowed. The ideal level of soil acidity for growing this berry is from 5.5 to 6.5. Planted seedlings in the soil taken in the spring or autumn. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the temperature conditions outside. You can not plant strawberries too early in the spring or too late in the autumn time, so that the frost does not damage the grown bushes.Important! If the street suddenly becomes cold, you can cover the strawberries with a film that will save heat inside.
As soon as it gets warmer in the street, the film from the bushes should be removed. In the autumn, landing can begin in mid-August and end at the end of September. Before planting seedlings it is necessary to moisten the soil. You can also plant bushes after the rain, while the soil is still quite wet.
When growing strawberries it is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out much. Regular watering - the key to a good harvest. Some gardeners are building a drip irrigation system in their garden. Thus, you can save time and effort. The system can be fully automated so that it independently supplies water to the site at the appointed time.
It is very important to remove weeds from the bed from time to time. In open beds they grow much faster. You will also have to constantly carry out pest control, which is also not against eating strawberries. To prevent the soil from drying out too quickly, mulching with humus or straw can be done.
The technology of growing strawberries provides for regular soil moistening the first time after planting bushes. The first week will have to water the plants every day. Watering should be moderate, but regular. Then you can reduce the number of waterings to 1 time in 2 days. Cultivation and care in the open field provides for regular weeding and removal of weeds. It is also necessary, if necessary, to combat pests and to prevent various diseases.Attention! Too wet soil can become a breeding ground for fungi and other strawberry diseases.
At each stage of strawberry growth requires different fertilizers. For example, during the flowering period, the plant needs potassium. This element contains such fertilizers:
- potassium sulfate;
- potassium chloride.
It is necessary to use the above preparations strictly according to the instructions. To increase the yield of strawberries should be foliar feeding strawberries with boric acid. To do this, in one container mix 1 teaspoon of the substance with 10 liters of water. For feeding adult bushes it is customary to use a solution of nitroammofoski. She also conducts fertilizer bushes after harvest. Only in this case, the amount of substance in the solution must be increased by 2 times.
Also during the flowering period, organic fertilizers can be used. For example, wood ash or chicken droppings are great. And before wintering can be fertilized with a solution of urea. This will help to achieve a better harvest for the next year.
Pruning and breeding strawberries
Strawberry propagates in three ways:
- Young bushes from a mustache.
- The division of the adult bush.
The easiest and most popular way is planting seedlings from a mustache. To prepare the seedlings for breeding, you must leave the strongest mustache on the bush. 10-14 days before disembarking, the mustache must be cut off. Uterine bush is suitable for growing mustache for three years.
An important step in care is cutting leaves from bushes. This helps protect the bushes from pests and possible diseases. For pruning use a sharp pruner. You can perform the procedure in the morning when the dew subsides or in the evening. On the bush, you must leave all the stalks and stalks. Remove all overgrown leaves and whiskers. This procedure is very important before hibernating strawberries. For the winter, only young and healthy shoots are left on the bushes.
Mulch the soil in the beds with strawberries should be carried out in the fall in order to protect the peduncles from contact with the ground, and also in the fall in order to prepare the bushes for the winter frost. As organic mulch is perfect:
Inorganic types of mulch include:
- plastic wrap;
- a rock;
- mulch paper
Recently, mulch paper is in great demand. This material does not contain harmful paints and does not rot. At the same time, it perfectly protects plants from fungi and does not allow weeds to germinate. Also, this coating does not evaporate moisture from the ground. Mulch will not only protect the soil from drought, but also decorate your summer cottage.
Not all varieties need shelter for the winter. You should also take into account the particular climate of your region. In the case of very cold winters, of course, shelter will not be superfluous. In warm weather, covering material removed, that the strawberries are not vyporovala. Small frosts do not harm the bushes, but, on the contrary, only harden them.
Fans of strawberries can not be afraid to grow it in the open field. It is an unpretentious plant that bears excellent fruit in any type of soil. Of course, growing strawberries in the open field requires some effort. Fortunately, there are many materials and devices that simplify the task. Some features of growing strawberries you could find out in this article. Following these rules, it will not be difficult to grow strawberries. We also offer you to watch a video in which you can see with your own eyes how to grow a great strawberry crop in the country.