Growing mushrooms in the country is becoming an increasingly popular occupation. In addition to the ecological purity of independently grown mushrooms, you can get a lot of pleasure from the harvested crop and great nutritional benefits. Usually gardeners decide to grow mushrooms, considering them unpretentious and most tender among mushrooms grown in artificial conditions. The yield of champignons is striking. If you compare the number of vegetables and mushrooms obtained from one area, then you will pick up champignons 4 times more. Champignons grow in the country is convenient and profitable.
The fungus does not require active sunlight, so you can safely use the shady space, unsuitable for other cultures. This species grows equally well in basements, greenhouses and in open ground. The only factor that needs to be paid close attention is the substrate for mushroom cultivation. How to grow champignons in the country independently and without errors?
We study the process of growing on the summer cottage
Before you start a new lesson, you need to remember that mushrooms mushrooms can not stand the sunlight. For the cultivation of this type of mushrooms need good ventilation and humidity. Therefore, to choose a place for planting mushrooms will have to take into account these nuances. We find a suitable site. Many gardeners grow their mushrooms in the near-stemming circles of an orchard or just in the garden. In the summer heat it is difficult to provide the necessary conditions for the cultivation of champignons. Fruit bodies of fungi grow massively in a narrow temperature range from + 15 ° C to + 18 ° C and a large percentage of humidity (90%). Therefore, a good harvest can be expected only before the onset of heat in early summer or after its decline - in the fall. But the cultivation of mushrooms in the country in the greenhouse allows you to collect mushrooms, regardless of external weather conditions and at any time of the year.
On the selected site we place small trenches with such parameters - the length and width of 1 meter, and a depth of 30 cm. The dimensions are given for ridges planned in open ground. We fill the dug trenches with a mullein or manure, but from above we must lay a layer of turf soil, then a substrate.
Prepare the substrate or soil mixture for planting mushrooms at the dacha. Preparation takes a month and a half.
- The best composition for champignons is horse manure. In second place - cow straw. At first, manure is shaken up with forks, and then enriched with urea or ammonium sulfate in the proportion of 25 g of substance per 10 kg of manure.
- In this composition, manure is aged for 10 days, shoveled again and chalk is added. Its amount is taken at the rate of 65 g per 10 kg of substrate. Mixed mixture for champignons should be folded into a collar and compacted from the sides.
- The next time they shovel the composition after 8 days, at the same time adding 10 g of superphosphate and gypsum - 60 g for every 10 kg.
- Now it remains to wait, when the composition for champignons will get a light brown shade and will begin to disintegrate, not emitting the smell of ammonia. The matured substrate is very densely laid out on a dug-up bed 1.2 m wide.
Mature substrate for mushrooms laid on the trench. This moment is the most convenient in order to provide champignons with protection from drafts. On the north side of the trench it is good to strengthen the glass, which protects from the cold wind. A canopy over a flower bed, which will save champignons from a shower and an active sun, will be very useful. It can be made from ordinary plastic film. After the equipment of the bed, the substrate is left on it for a week, periodically compacting it.
Cooking mushrooms for planting
While the substrate is going through the stage of maturation, let's get into the acquisition of mushroom mycelium.
Mycelium can be bought in specialized stores and communities of gardeners engaged in the cultivation of champignons. Apply the purchased material must be strictly following the instructions.
The suitability of the purchased raw materials is difficult to determine, because it is stored exclusively in the cold. The best guideline will be the period indicated on the package. Houses also need to put the mushroom mycelium in a room with a temperature not higher than + 10 ° C. Only a couple of days before the proposed planting, the package is taken out and transferred to heat (22 ° C).
If the fungi spores are alive, then after 2 days the first signs of mushroom growth will appear in the package:
- characteristic mushroom flavor;
- web on content;
- increase mycelium moisture.
When these signs are absent, you can try to “revive” the mycelium.
It is transferred to a container, covered with a newspaper sheet and moistened with a spray bottle, trying not to wet the mycelium. The newspaper is kept wet all the time, and the container is placed in heat. Thus, create ideal moisture conditions for the fungus.Important! Do not allow direct ingress of water on the mycelium, it is detrimental to champignons.
If after the done procedures, signs of fungus life do not appear, then such a mycelium is unsuitable for planting.
Another nuance is that we prepare the soil mixture in advance for hiding the mycelium. At this stage takes 20-25 days. For the mix we prepare 1 part sand and sod land and twice as much peat (2 parts). Mix and leave until the mushrooms emerge.
The crucial moment is sowing mushrooms and harvesting.
The bed is ready, the substrate too, the mycelium is tested for suitability, proceed to planting. Mushroom spores are placed at a depth of 5 cm. In each well you will need to put 20 g of mycelium. Sowing champignons is carried out in a staggered manner, the planting pattern is 20x20 cm. Immediately we water the garden and cover with paper, cloth or other available materials.
After 2-3 weeks, filaments of the mycelium appear on the surface, we cover them with a soil layer of a pre-prepared mixture 4 cm thick, and remove the covering material.
If at this time there are very few filaments (hyphae) of fungi, the reason is the insufficient humidity of the substrate or its temperature is below the permissible. Moisturize the substrate through a layer of paper, and heated by compaction.
Now we have to wait until the collection of the first mushrooms for at least 25 days. As soon as the diameter of the caps will be 3-4 cm, you can collect the first harvest.Tip! Mushrooms need to twist, not cut. The mushroom is removed by rotational movement from the soil mixture, so that others can grow in its place, and the pits are covered with earth.
The yield of champignons in the country is 5 kg per 1 square. m beds. The process of fruiting mushrooms will last 2-3 months.
Important! Do not forget to water the mushrooms during this time. This should be done 2 times a week and only by sprinkling.
There is a way to grow champignons in the country without buying mycelium.
- It will be necessary to find mature forest mushrooms and remove them from the soil with a twisting motion.
- Dig a trench in advance on the plot and fill it with a mixture of manure and straw. The depth of the trench is 25 cm. From above it is covered with good garden soil.
- Caps of mushrooms finely chopped and spread on the surface of the substrate.
- From above, once again a layer of earth 3 cm thick.
A month later, we are harvesting the first crop of champignons. You can leave a few mushrooms for later planting.
Greenhouse growing method
To increase the duration of the collection of mushrooms, many gardeners grow mushrooms in the greenhouse. With this method of cultivation, it is important to ensure reliable control of humidity, lighting and temperature conditions in the greenhouse. To the substrate for closed ground also have their own requirements. Mushrooms grow well in the soil:
- nutrient rich;
- well drained and permeable to air and moisture;
- without excess carbon dioxide.
If it is possible to place the mycelium in the forest ground, then this is excellent. In another case, you will need to add a small amount of sawdust to the soil. For planting take mycelium or cap mature mushrooms.Important! Before planting, warm up the greenhouse to 22 ° C and prepare polyethylene to cover the ridges.
If you decide to grow mushrooms in the greenhouse in winter, then leave free space between the beds and the wall. This will ensure that the mushrooms do not overcool during the cold season.
Do not forget to ventilate the greenhouse! Mushrooms react poorly to heat. As soon as the first shoots of small champignons appear, it is possible to move from sprinkling to sprinkling. It is held twice a day, and the beds are watered once a week from a garden watering can to prevent the roots from rotting. Be sure to monitor the temperature, humidity and ventilation.
The first harvest of mushrooms may not be so great, but in the future you will be able to collect a decent crop of tender and tasty mushrooms. If you have decided to start breeding mushrooms in the country, then start with the preparatory stage in advance. Most of the time is spent preparing the substrate, and it is easy to care for the beds.
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